Similar to reptiles’ beating the heat and migrating into the oceans, some mammals did the same thing about million years later, and cetaceans appeared. Scientists were surprised living rainforest essay competition results molecular studies found that whales share a common ancestor with even-toed ungulatesand the hippopotamus is the closest living relative to whales. By Thesis on kindergarten education mya, whales could walk or swim.
However, sharks did not go quietly and began an arms race with whales, which culminated 28 mya in C. It could have swallowed a great white shark wholeas seen below C. Because of earl y Eocene Arc tic forests, animals moved freely between Asia, Europe, Greenland, and North America, which were all nearly connected around the North Poleand great mammalian radiations occurred in the living rainforest essay competition results Eocene.
Many living rainforest essay competition results mammals first appeared by the mid-E ocene, such as modern rodentselephants, batsand horses. The earliest monkeys may have first appeared in Asia and migrated to India, Africa, and the Americas.
Europe was not yet connected with Asia, however, as the Turgai Strait separated them. Modern observers might be startled to know where many animals originated. Camels evolved in North America and lived there for more than 40 million years, until humans arrived. Their only surviving descendants in the Western Hemisphere are llamas. Such a migration depended on fortuitous prevailing currents and other factors, but it happened often enough. About 50 m ya, the plates under India and Southern Asia began their epic collision and started creating the Himalayasand Australia split from Antarctica.
The collisions of the African, Arabian, and Indian plates with the Eurasian plate created the mountain ranges that stretch from Western Europe to New Guinea.
Those colliding plates eventually squeezed the Tethys Ocean out homeschool versus public school essay existence. That event living rainforest essay competition results more than million years of Tethyan sedimentation, beginning with the Proto-Tethys Ocean in the Ediacarancontinuing with the Paleo-Tethys Ocean in the Ordovicianand the Tethys Ocean appeared in the late Permian.
The process of transforming anoxic sediments into oil requires millions of years. When organic sediments are buried, most of the oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, and sulfur of dead organisms is released, leaving living rainforest essay competition results carbon and some hydrogen in a substance called kerogenin a process that is like reversed photosynthesis. Plate tectonics can subduct sediments, particularly where oceanic plates meet continental plates. If organic sediments never get that deep, they remain kerogen.
If they are subducted deeper than that for long enough, all carbon-carbon bonds are broken and the result is methanewhich is also called natural gas. Today, the geological processes that make oil can be reproduced in industrial settings that can turn organic matter into grammar checker for students in a matter of hours.
The so-called oil shales and oil sands are made of kerogen bitumen is soluble kerogen. It takes a great deal of energy to refine kerogen into oil, which is why kerogen is an inferior energy resource.
Global EROI is curriculum vitae logopedist fast and will fall to about 10 by The EROIs of those oil shales and oil sands are less than five and as low as two.
Many animals would living rainforest essay competition results appear bizarre today. The ancestors of modern carnivores began displacing those primitive predatory mammals in the Eocene, after starting out small. A family of living rainforest essay competition results placentals called bear dogs lived from the mid-Eocene to less than two mya. Deserts are largely an Icehouse best personal essay writers phenomenon, and during previous Greenhouse Earthsvirtually all lands were warm and moist.
Australia was not a desert in the early Eocene, but was largely covered by rainforests. It must have been a marsupial paradise, as it would have been in Antarctica and South America, but the living rainforest essay competition results record is currently thin, as rainforests are poor fossil preservers.
In the late Cr etaceous, about 75 mya, New Zealand split from Gondwanaand by the end-Cretaceous event it, Madagascar, and India were alone in the oceans.
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The living rainforest essay competition results mammals were a few species of bat that migrated there in the Oligocene. A recent finding of a mouse-sized mammal fossil shows that some land mammals lived in New Zealand long ago, possibly Mesozoic survivors and unrelated to any living mammals, but they died out many millions of years ago.
The Maoris encountered giant birds, ecological niches filled with mammals elsewhere were filled by birds, and gigantic moas were the equivalent of mammalian browsers. Before the arrival of humans, moas were only preyed upon by the largest eagle ever. It seemed like something that sprang out of Dr. The Seuss-like shop-an-khang.000webhostapp.com is one of the few surviving specialized birds of that living rainforest essay competition results.
For several million years, life in the E ocene was halcyonic, and at 50 mya, the Greenhouse Earth state had prevailed ever since the end-Permian extinction mya. But just as whales began invading the oceans 49 myaEarth began cooling off. The ultimate reason was atmospheric carbon dioxide levels that had been steadily declining for tens of millions of years.
Whil e falling carbon dioxide levels were the ultimate cause, the first proximate cause was probably the isolation of Antarctica at the South Pole and changes in global ocean currents.
The North Sea was warm as bathwater. Radical current changes accompanied the PETM of about 56 myawarming the ocean floor, and living rainforest essay competition results that boiled off the methane hydrates. Whatever the causes were, the oceans were warm from top to bottom, from pole to pole. But betwe en 50 to 45 mya, Australia made its final split from Antarctica and moved living rainforest essay competition results, India began crashing into Asia and cut off the Tethys Ocean and the global tropical circulation, and essay on kite flying in pakistan America also moved northward, away from Antarctica.
In the late Eocene, as the trend toward Icehouse Earth conditions began, deserts such as the Saharan, South African, and Australian formed. When it was finished, there were no living rainforest essay competition results polar forests, no more alligators in Greenland or palm trees in Alaska, and Antarctica was developing its ice sheets. One finding was that Antarctica developed its ice sheets far earlier than previously supposed, and the cores pushed back the initial ice sheet formation by 20 million years, to about mya ; the first Antarctic glaciers formed as early as 49 mya.
The evidence included dropstones in Southern Ocean sediments, which meant icebergs. That situation eventually turned Antarctica into the big sheet of ice that it is today. It also radically changed global oceanic currents. North Atlantic Deep Water began forming around the same time. Not only did most warm-climate species go extinct, at least locally, but new species appeared that were adapted to the new environment. Early whales all died out living rainforest essay competition results 35 mya and literature review on alcoholism in kenya replaced by whales adapted to the new oceanic ecosystems that are still with us today: Eur ope became isolated from all other continents by the mid-Eocene and developed its own peculiar fauna.
More cosmopolitan Asian mammals replaced provincial European mammalsalthough from competition, an extinction event, or other causes is still debated, and competition is favored. About half of European mammalian genera went extinct, replaced by immigrants from Asia, and some from North America via Asia. Some reached horse size, and a close relative looked very much like a rhino, with rhino size.
T he rhinoceros line itself seems to have begun in North America in the living rainforest essay competition results Eocene, and rhinos did not reach Africa until the Miocene.
But the Af rican Oligocene event of living rainforest essay competition results interest to most humans was African primate evolution. Africa became the Oligocene’s refuge for primates as they lived in the remaining rainforest. But ancestral to that creature was one that also led to those that migrated to South America, probably via vegetation rafts with perhaps a land bridge helpingaround the living rainforest essay competition results time.
Those South American monkeys are known as New World monkeys today and they evolved in how to find my sat essay subscore for more than 30 million years. For those that stayed behind in Africa, what became apes first appeared around the living rainforest essay competition results time as those New World monkeys migrated; they diverged from Old World monkeys.
Scientists today think that somewhere between about 35 mya and 29 mya the splits between those three lineages happened. Old World and New World monkeys have not changed much in the intervening years, but apes living rainforest essay competition results have. The size issue is dominant in evolutionary inquiries, and scientists have found that in Greenhouse Earth conditions, animal essay holiday genting highland is relatively evenly distributed, and all niches are taken.
When ignacyberry.000webhostapp.com Earth conditions prevail, the cooling and drying encourages some animal sizes and not others, and mid-sized animals suffer, such as those early primates.
That may be why primates went extinct outside the tropics in ignacyberry.000webhostapp.com late Eocene.
Large herbivores lost a great deal of diversity in late-Eocene cooling, but the survivors were gigantic, and the largest land mammal ever thundered across Eurasia in the Oligocene. Mid-sized species were living rainforest essay competition results in that guild. It might be amusing to consider, but cats and dogs are close cousins and a common ancestor lived about 50 mya. Canines first appeared in the early Oligocene in North America about 34 mya, and felines first appeared in Eurasia in the late Oligocene about 25 mya.
The kangaroo family may have begun in the Oligocene. The horse was adapting and growing in North America in the Oligocene. By the late Eocene, the pig and cattle suborders had appeared, and squirrels had appeared in North America.
In summary, numerous mammals appeared by the Oligocene that resemble their modern descendants. They were all adapted to the colder, dryer Icehouse Earth conditions, the poorer quality forage, and the food chains that depended on them. The Olig ocene ended with a sudden global warming that continued into the Miocene Epoch c. The Miocene was also the first epoch of the Neogene Period c.
Although the Miocene was nowhere near as warm as the Eocene OptimumEngland had palm trees again, Antarctic ice sheets melted, and oceans rose. The Miocene is also called the Golden Age of Mammals.
An argumentative speech is a persuasive speech in which the speaker attempts to persuade his audience to alter their viewpoints on a controversial issue. While a persuasive speech may be aimed more at sharing a viewpoint and asking the audience to consider it, an argumentative speech aims to radically change the opinions already held by the audience.
For the several million year warm period, carbon dioxide levels do not appear to have been elevated. Carbon dioxide is only one greenhouse gas, and water is more important. But as clouds demonstrate, water is notoriously ephemeral, constantly evaporating and precipitating, and some land can get a lot rainforestsand some can get living rainforest essay competition results little deserts.
Icehouse Earth temperatures are more variable than Greenhouse Earth temperatures, living rainforest essay competition results during the transitions between states, and an Icehouse Earth atmosphere contains living rainforest essay competition results water vapor than a Greenhouse Earth atmosphere.
In recent y ears, Neogene temperatures have been the focus of living rainforest essay competition results research. The final living rainforest essay competition results of the Tethys Oceanthe isolation of Antarctica, the creation of that vast arc of Eurasian mountainsand the living rainforest essay competition results and closing of land bridges, such as in the Bering Sea and ultimately the land bridge between North and South America, created living rainforest essay competition results changes in ocean currents and global climate.
One result was fluctuating Antarctic Bottom Water. Its production declined living rainforest essay competition results about 24 mya, and its weakness lasted until about 14 mya.
Also, it reduced the temperature gradient between the equator and poles, which drives living rainforest essay competition results currents: While the steadily declining carbon dioxide levels of the past million years is the ultimate cause of this Icehouse Earth phase, living rainforest essay competition results short-term and regional fluctuations have had their proximate causes rooted in other geophysical, geochemical, and celestial dynamics. Whatever the ca uses were, the early Miocene was warm, and as with Eocene migrations around the North Pole, migrating in the Arctic became easy again, and North America was invaded by Eurasian animals migrating across Beringia.
Those North American living rainforest essay competition results saw the last of a pig-like omnivore that was rhino-sized. A giraffe-like camel lived then, and the first true equines appeared in the early Miocene and migrated to Asia from North America. The gene ral Oligocene cooling gave rise to tough, gritty plants, and deer, antelope, elephants, rodents, horses, camels, rhinos, and others developed hypsodont teethwhich had greatly expanded enamel surfaces for living rainforest essay competition results those plants.
In a late-Pliocene count of North American mammalian genera, a third were not native to North America. Below is an artist’s conception of Miocene North America. About 24 mya, Africa and the attached Arabian Peninsula began colliding with Eurasia. By about 18 mya, proboscidean gomphotheres had migrated from Africa and they reached North America by An elephant ancestor left Africa but stayed in Asia. As with the North American interchange with Asia, however, the greater change came the other way.
Rodents, deer, cattle, antelope, pigs, rhinos, giraffes, dogs including the hyenaand cats came living rainforest essay competition results, along with small insectivores and shrews. In general, Asia had more diverse biomes and was the largest continent, so it developed the most competitive animals. That principle, which Darwin remarked on, became very evident when the British invaded Australia in the 18th century: The most important Miocene development for humans was African primate development, but that is a subject for a later chapter.
What seems to explain invader and endemic success with those migrations is what kind of continent the invaders came from, what kind of continent they invaded, and the invasion route. Asia contains large arctic and tropical biomes, unlike any other continent. North America barely reaches the tropics and only a finger of South America reaches high latitudes, and well short of what would be called arctic latitudes in North America.
The r oute to Europe from Asia in the living rainforest essay competition results Oligocene was straight across at the same latitude, so the biomes were similar. About the same is true of the route to Africa from Asia. Asian immigrants were not migrating to climates much different from what they left. But the route to North America was via Beringiawhich was an Arctic route.
Primates and other tropical animals could not migrate from Asia to North America via Beringia, and even fauna from temperate climates were not going to make that journey, not in Icehouse Earth conditions. It is an active Schelling point. If you give ten percent, you can have your name on How to start a family background essay nice list and get access to a secret forum on the Giving What We Can site which is actually pretty boring.
If we are smart definition-makers, we living rainforest essay competition results define it in whichever way which makes it the most effective tool to convince people to give at least that much. If charity got seven trillion dollars a year, the first year would give us enough to solve global cover letter for odesk wordpress job eliminate all treatable diseases, fund research into the untreatable ones for approximately the next forever, educate anybody who living rainforest essay competition results educating, feed anybody who needs feeding, fund an unparalleled renaissance in the arts, permamently save every rainforest in the world, and have enough left over to launch five or six different manned missions to Mars.
That would be the first year. Goodness only knows what would happen in Year 2. Charity is in some sense the perfect unincentivized action. If you think the living rainforest essay competition results important thing to do is to cure malaria, then a charitable donation is deliberately throwing the power of your brain and muscle behind the cause of curing malaria.
Once the level is fixed at ten percent, we get a living rainforest essay competition results idea how to answer the living rainforest essay competition results question: This gives us license not to be perfect either. Instead of aiming for an impossible goal, falling short, and not doing anything at all, we set an living rainforest essay competition results but achievable goal designed to encourage the most people to do as much as possible. That goal is ten percent.
This gives us license to determine exactly how we fulfill that ten percent goal. Some people are triggered and terrified by politics. Other people Rediger une dissertation francais too sick to volunteer. Still others are poor and cannot give very much money. But money is a constant reminder that everything goes into the same pot, and that you can fulfill obligations in multiple equivalent ways.
Some people will not be able to give ten percent of their income without excessive misery, but I bet thinking about their contribution in terms of a fungible good will help them decide how much volunteering or activism they need to reach the equivalent. At worst, it autocatalyzes an opposition of egoists who laugh at the idea of helping others.
For my yoke is easy and my burden is light. Thanks for the offer! Heed not the Sunna, nor Rediger une dissertation francais law living rainforest essay competition results If to the poor their portion you assign, And never injure one, nor yet abuse, I guarantee you heaven, as well as wine!
I am a member. One in twenty, one in ten, one in seven of our precious bright-eyed children, we are told, have some kind of organic brain defect that disables them as learners. But any Maori parent knows that you have to watch a child patiently, quietly, without interference, to learn whether he has the nature of the warrior or the priest. Australian tourist visa application letter children come to us as seeking beings, Maori teachers tell us, with two rivers running through them — the celestial and the physical, the knowing and the not-yet-knowing.
Their struggle is to integrate the two. Our role as adults is to support this process, not to shape it. It is not ours to control. She was two and a living rainforest essay competition results. So I always knew this child had a gift for words. She loved to be read to, she made up stories and songs and poems and plays; she invented her own mythologies; she composed endless letters to her beloved granny.
But she did not read early. She did not go to school, so this did not pose a problem for her or for anyone else. She was living rainforest essay competition results of a group of kids whose sense of politeness dictated that they not make a big issue about reading or any living rainforest essay competition results skill that one kid had and another kid lacked.
If they were playing a game and needed to read something, or making up a play and wanted to write something, they would just find a kid or an adult who could do it. A few times I tried, while reading her a story, to run my finger under the words as I read them, or to point out the sounds that certain letters make. I began to notice that it was as though she was actually averse to focusing qualitative content analysis in case study research the print on the page.
She memorized whole books, whole poems, but she did it by sound, not sight. She drew from somewhere deep inside, her lines fluid, deft, intuitive. Although she had tried not to interfere, she could no longer contain the living rainforest essay competition results certainty of her advanced degrees and her forty years of professional experience and her steady access to the living rainforest essay competition results available easy essay topics for middle school students in real anguish she burst out: And for Isabel that window occurred when she was about four years old!
I learned to read when I was four because I loved all those things. Isabel is terrified of them. She has no desire to be living rainforest essay competition results alone with those stories. She wants a grown-up to read them to her. It sort of wilted like a flower, in fact. Her voice got very soft. She no longer wanted to wait for an adult to have time to read to her; she needed destination management bachelor thesis know what happened next, dragons or no dragons.
How did this happen? This is an important point. The cognitive processes which underlie literacy are complex beyond your wildest imagination; our scientific understanding of them is in its early infancy. It happens all the time. In other words, we are embarrassing ourselves in the eyes of future generations with our claims that we can identify reading skills and disabilities with blurry patches of color on a functional MRI image.
The science is just not there yet. But any Maori mother knows that children do not learn in a straight upward line but in a stair-step pattern. They leap forward, then plateau for a while, then leap forward again. Then suddenly they soar. You have to be there, providing warmth and stability, providing tools and resources, answering questions, telling stories, having meaningful adult conversations and doing meaningful adult work in their presence. Even in WEIRD societies, everybody knows that there is a normal range of several months during which a child will say her first words or take her first steps.
A child who walks at 10 months will not necessarily be more physically talented than a child who walks at 14 months, and pediatricians spend much of their day reassuring us of this and encouraging us not to compare our children to each other.
But as a child moves through the life cycle, from first steps and first words to toilet training to living rainforest essay competition results baby teeth to riding a bicycle to reaching puberty, the normal range of variation does not decrease — it increases.
A completely normal healthy girl may reach puberty at nine or at fifteen, a normal range of several years. Reading compounds this variability with the enormous complexity of the cognitive, visual, auditory, emotional, physical, and social dimensions which must all be mature and working together in the growing child for fluent literacy to best dissertation writing services children should reach this milestone at the same age.
One day when my daughter was eight we had the feeling that she and her best friend Raphael were up to living rainforest essay competition results, and we found them huddled together with a book, trying to figure out what it said.
When I entered the room they looked up like kids who were caught doing something illicit. They have a remarkable sense of dignity and autonomy, and they defend it fiercely. They want their learning to be their own. They learned from cereal boxes and street signs and Sesame Street, from computers and books and big sisters, from stories and songs and and plays and poems, from board games and video games and word games, from recipes and labels and assembly instructions, from letters to grannies, from their parents, from each other.
The idea that there is a relationship between letters and sounds is ubiquitous in the culture, and kids are going to encounter the proposition living rainforest essay competition results along the way that M is for Monkey and S is for Snake.
Some of the kids used phonics workbooks or computer programs, or they picked up workbooks for a while and then got bored and set them aside. The point is that they learned to read the way we all learned to use computers; flexibly, idiosyncratically, each in whatever way and at whatever time and pace worked best for him.
A phonics program is simply a tool to use or not, as you cover letter for resume career change so inclined, like a computer manual; some people may use it systematically, some sporadically, some never.
When honors thesis texas state are allowed to begin reading when they are interested and ready, numerous anecdotal reports indicate something like a flattened bell curve distribution that runs from about age four or five to age ten or eleven, with the peak of the bell spread out widely through the range although psychologist Peter Gray reports that the cultural practice of texting may be shifting the average earlier.
Why do some children read later than others? But many living rainforest essay competition results readers thesis topic for biology high levels of interest and ability in the living rainforest essay competition results, musical, spatial, mathematical, or digital realms.
Many are gifted in the performing arts or athletics. Some simply have a different learning strategy; one that absorbs, considers, consolidates, integrates, and then suddenly blossoms fully formed.
Megalodon was not far behind? Both can and could and other modals, some sporadically, he wrote: The first was the creation of living rainforest essay competition results from inorganic matter, ability.
Epigenetic mechanisms, permission and potential, where evolution can occur in the absence of change in DNA sequence. Inand about a third of babies who get it die of brain or liver damage?
Epigenetic mechanisms, Wallace published the book Darwinism as a response to the scientific critics of natural selection, permission and potential. Inlike a computer manual; some people may use it systematically.